Corn and hay crop silages are valuable commodities on dairy farms. Measuring silage density is a good way to determine how well the silage is packed. A good fermentation relies on proper packing to exclude oxygen. Inadequate packing in bunk silos, trenches, piles and ag bags can lead to nutrient loss and spoilage, thereby lowering feeding value and potential milk production.
Instructions for Determining Density
Follow Master Forage Probe sampling instructions
- Select a sampling site and using your Master Forage Probe, obtain a core sample of at least 6 inches (15 cm) and not greater than 10 inches (25 cm). Withdraw the probe and insert plunger into the hole. Measure and record the depth of the hole as the Core Depth. Enter the Core Depth in inches or cm into the calculator.
- Weigh a plastic bag or bucket large enough to hold the entire contents of the probe and record weight (container weight). Empty the entire contents of the probe into the container, weigh and record (combined weight). Subtract the container weight from the combined weight to determine the Core Weight. Enter the Core Weight in grams into the calculator.
- Determine the dry matter of the core sample using a Koster Tester, Microwave Oven or Laboratory value. Enter the Dry Matter. Click Calculate to display the density.
- Using the above information, your density will automatically be calculated in lbs./cu. ft. on an As Sampled and Dry Matter Basis.
- If performing a multiple site evaluation, repeat the above steps for each site. The calculator will determine the individual density for up to three sites and compute the average.
Note: the density calculator is calibrated to work specifically with the Master Forage Probe. Entering depths and weights obtained using another sampling device will result in erroneous density values.
Forms and Documents
The Master Forage Probe comes with:
- A stainless steel sample cylinder with an inside diameter of just under 2 inches. It has a cutting edge on one end and an adapter to attach it to a cordless drill on the other.
- A calibrated wooden plunger provided to push the sample out of the tube doubles as a measuring device to measure the depth of the hole. The length and fresh weight from that sample allow the user to calculate the “as fed” density on the spot. The dry matter density can be calculated once the dry matter content is determined using the Master Forage Probe Density Charts or Calculators.
- A drill bit adapter. It is recommended for use with a 3/8 inch variable drill speed drill. An 18-volt (or greater) drill will deliver the best performance.
To place an order, call 607-375-9962 or visit our online store.
Density Measurement Safety Precautions
Taking samples from the face of bunk silos is no longer a recommended practice due to safety concerns from the potential of unstable bunk faces to collapse resulting in possible personal injury. For routine forage sampling, use a bucket loader or face shaver to scrape across the face to create a pile on the bunk floor then collect a representative sample for analysis following good sampling practices.
With regards to density measurements, currently the Master Forage Probe is only able to evaluate bunk density by taking samples from the face of a bunk. Due to the safety concerns of approaching bunk faces, we are reaching out to various industry individuals to investigating the viability of alternative methods of using the probe to obtain similar density measurements.
If silage density measurements are still desired for your bunk, always remember that SAFETY COMES FIRST! Evaluate the silage face for any risk factors and avoid any unsafe areas or situations. Taking density measurements is not worth risking a life! Use the buddy system and common sense, taking all proper precautions, especially if sampling from heights. NEVER sample an unstable bunk face and NEVER sample from an unstable position. If there is any question about bunk stability and your safety, DO NOT PROCEED WITH SAMPLING.
If you made the decision that it’s safe to proceed with density sampling, like anything else, results are only as good as the sample. Sample as many safe locations across the face of the bunker as possible. More reliable forage density results are obtained by compositing several subsamples instead of relying on one sample. During the process, remember you will need to record the location, weight, and depth of each sample pulled since it will vary from side to center and from top to bottom of the bunk silo.
Taking a Sample
Before the first use, use 400 or 600 grit emery cloth (fine sandpaper) on the outside of the probe. This is easily accomplished with the drill running. This will remove any residues left in place during the manufacturing process and help reduce “drag” when drilling. It is recommended that you wear leather gloves to protect your hands since the cutting edge is very sharp.
- Sample as many locations across the face of a bunker slio as possible. More reliable results are obtained by compositing several subsamples instead of relying on one sample. Sample to a depth of 6-9 inches. Do not “re-sample” a hole in an attempt to reach a greater depth.
- A sharp tip, a clean probe, and a well charged battery will result in the easiest sample collection.
- Start in the center of the bunk face & collect probe samples from 3 feet below the top (1), from the center (2), and from 3 feet above the bottom of the bunk silo (3).
- Repeat this process, top, center, and bottom midway between the silo center and the side walls on each side.
- If time or battery power is limiting, probe at the center of the face (2) or about one half that depth, to avoid low density material at the top and denser silage at the bottom of the bunker.
- Use common sense and take the proper safety precautions when sampling from heights requiring a ladder. Never sample from an unstable position.
- Remove probe from the driver & insert the plunder into the cutting end of the probe and push the forage out of the other end. Extra effort may be required if the probe is dirty. Placing your hands around the probe and pulling it over the wooden plunger to empty it into a bag or bucket may work best in some situations. Leather gloves are highly recommended to protect your hands.
- A clean probe will work best. Run it through the dishwasher to keep it clean.
Maintenance of the Probe
Keep the probe as clean and smooth as possible. A 400 or 600 grit emery cloth may help remove scratches or burrs that may develop over time and with use. It is also helpful in the bunk silo if you cannot wash gummy residue off the probe.
At the end of the day, wash the driver and inside of the probe with warm soapy water to remove gummy build-up that may create resistance when drilling or unloading. Wash the probe and driver in the dishwasher after each day’s use if possible.
Carry the forage probe in the horizontal position to avoid damage to the cutting edge should the probe be dropped.